My laboratory is interested in innate immune responses modulated by plasma proteins and expression of antimicrobial peptides regulated by signal transduction pathways in a model insect, the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Insects lack an immunoglobulin-mediated acquired immunity, but they have developed an effective and sophisticated immune system similar to the innate immune system of vertebrates. In the innate immune system, recognition of pathogens and differentiation of nonself are critical to the host animals to trigger effective immune responses. Initial recognition of pathogens in innate immunity is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that can recognize structural molecular patterns, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), present on the surface of many microbes and pathogens but not on the host cells. Our research focuses on:
- C-type lectins as key PRRs in innate immune responses. C-type lectins are calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. We have discovered a group of at least four C-type lectins, named immulectins, in M. sexta. These immulectins can enhance hemocyte (blood cell) phagocytosis, encapsulation and melanization. Our current work is to investigate how immulectins recognize and bind to microbial surface molecules such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), to trigger innate immune responses.
- Modulation of phenoloxidase (PO) activation. Melanotic encapsulation is an effective immune response to pathogens, particularly to large pathogens like nematodes and parasitoid eggs. Melanization requires activation of PO, a process that involves a cascade of serine proteinases. However, PO activation can also be modulated by non-enzymatic proteins. For example, we found that serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) are essential co-factors in PO activation by proteinases. We also found that a small cationic protein, lysozymes, and immulectins can either positively or negatively regulate PO activity. Currently, we are investigating how these proteins can modulate PO activation.
- Regulation of antimicrobial peptide genes. Insects can synthesize a variety of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) upon microbial infections. The majority of AMPs is present in all insects, while some are species-specific. For example, Gloverin and Moricin are found only in Lepidoptera but not in Diptera (Drosophila and mosquitoes). Expression of AMPs is regulated by signal transduction pathways, such as the Toll and IMD (immune deficiency) pathways in Drosophila. Our research is to investigate how AMPs, particularly Gloverin and Moricin, are regulated in M. sexta hemocytes, and to identify additional signaling pathways that may activate AMPs by LPS.
Yu XQ, Luo Q, Kahn C, Cahill C, Weber M, Grogan P, Jemal A, O'Connell DL. Widening socioeconomic disparity in lung cancer incidence among men in New South Wales, Australia, 1987-2011. (2017). Chinese journal of cancer research = Chung-kuo yen cheng yen chiu, 29 (5), 395-401. Journal Article.
Deng KP, Fan YX, Ma TW, Wang Z, TanTai WJ, Nie HT, Guo YX, Yu XQ, Sun LW, Wang F. Carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant status and antioxidant gene expression in muscle and liver of Hu lambs fed perilla seed. (2017). Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, Journal Article.
Islami F, Chen W, Yu XQ, Lortet-Tieulent J, Zheng R, Flanders WD, Xia C, Thun MJ, Gapstur SM, Ezzati M, Jemal A. Cancer deaths and cases attributable to lifestyle factors and infections in China, 2013. (2017). Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 28 (10), 2567-2574. Journal Article.
Lv MQ, Wang J, Yu XQ, Hong HH, Ren WJ, Ge P, Zhou DX. Association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1(XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism and endometriosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (2017). European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 218 12-20. Journal Article.
Yu XQ, Wang MH, Li JS, Li SY, Xie Y, Bai YP, Zhang HL, Cao F, Hou CX, Ma LJ. Effect of comprehensive therapy based on Chinese medicine patterns on self-efficacy and effectiveness satisfaction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. (2017). Chinese journal of integrative medicine, Journal Article.
Tan YG, Wang XF, Zhang M, Yan HP, Lin DD, Wang YQ, Zhang HP, Yu XQ, Liao HY, Wang YP, Lv FD, Gao ZH. Clonal characteristics of paired infiltrating and circulating B lymphocyte repertoire in patients with primary biliary cholangitis. (2017). Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, Journal Article.
Zhang HL, Li JS, Yu XQ, Li SY, Halmurat U, Xie Y, Wang YF, Li FS, Wang MH. An evaluation of activity tolerance, patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction with the effectiveness of pulmonary daoyin on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (2017). International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 12 2333-2342. Journal Article.
Xu J, Li J, Cui L, Zhang T, Wu Z, Zhu PY, Meng YJ, Zhang KJ, Yu XQ, Lou QF, Chen JF. New insights into the roles of cucumber TIR1 homologs and miR393 in regulating fruit/seed set development and leaf morphogenesis. (2017). BMC plant biology, 17 (1), 130. Journal Article.
Cao JY, Yin HS, Li HS, Yu XQ, Han X. Interleukin-27 augments the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on bladder cancer cells. (2017). Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas, 50 (8), e6207. Journal Article.
Yang PJ, Zhan MY, Ye C, Yu XQ, Rao XJ. Molecular cloning and characterization of a short peptidoglycan recognition protein from silkworm Bombyx mori. (2017). Insect molecular biology, 26 (6), 665-676. Journal Article.
Yu XQ, Gao LM, Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Yang JB, Fang L, Yang SX, Li DZ. Insights into the historical assembly of East Asian subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests revealed by the temporal history of the tea family. (2017). The New phytologist, 215 (3), 1235-1248. Journal Article.
Luo Q, Egger S, Yu XQ, Smith DP, O'Connell DL. Validity of using multiple imputation for "unknown" stage at diagnosis in population-based cancer registry data. (2017). PloS one, 12 (6), e0180033. Journal Article.
Zhong Z, Feng SZ, Xu RC, Li ZJ, Huang FX, Yin PR, Liu WT, Wang M, Shi DC, Zhou Q, Yu XQ, Li M. Association of TNFSF13 polymorphisms with IgA nephropathy in a Chinese Han population. (2017). The journal of gene medicine, 19 (6-7), Journal Article.
Hinrichs MJM, Ryan PM, Zheng B, Afif-Rider S, Yu XQ, Gunsior M, Zhong H, Harper J, Bezabeh B, Vashisht K, Rebelatto M, Reed M, Ryan PC, Breen S, Patel N, Chen C, Masterson L, Tiberghien A, Howard PW, Dimasi N, Dixit R. Fractionated Dosing Improves Preclinical Therapeutic Index of Pyrrolobenzodiazepine-Containing Antibody Drug Conjugates. (2017). Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 23 (19), 5858-5868. Journal Article.
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